This short paper presents a survey history of Europe from its Greek origins through the Roman Empire and the spread of Christianity across the continent. The early medieval ages (AD 500-1000) saw the Merovingian and Carolingian dynasties and their interaction with the papacy culminating with the crowning of Charlemagne as the Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in AD 800. Otto I eventually took this title as the modern states of France, Germany, and Spain began to
take shape. Feudalism and the manorial system ruled before it was overtaken by the agrarian revolution, worldwide exploration and colonialism, and then the industrial revolution that began in the 17th century. Intellectual and religious revivals and revolutions also occured starting with the Italian Renaissance (13-16th cent.), the Protestant Reformation (16th cent.) and finally the Enlightenment (17th cent.).